The nose has a soft inner lining and is divided into right and left half by a firm wall known as the nasal septum, where a network of blood vessels exist. Most of the nose bleeds happen due to rupture of the blood vessels in the front half of the nasal septum, what we call the anterior half. Rarely the nose bleeds from blood vessels in the back half that is the posterior half of the septum, closer to the throat, where the blood can trickle down into the throat instead of flowing out in the nose.

Now among the causes, nose picking is the most common reason for nose bleed. Irritation from dryness or allergic itching. There could be a foreign body in the nose. A cold or a nasal infection. Use of any medicated nasal sprays, a fall or hit injuring the nose. Bleeding disorders or nasal growth can be some rare causes.

What do we do when there is a nose bleed?
Now what do we do when there is a nose bleed. Try to stay calm, then sit or stand while slightly leaning forward so as to enable the blood to flow down and out. Do not lie down or lift your head, as the blood will trickle into your throat into the stomach, where it can cause irritation leading to vomiting. Gently blow out any clots in the nose, now pinch the front half of the nose or the nostrils, that is the soft part of the nose, from both sides and continue to apply pressure for at least five minutes before gently releasing to see if the bleeding has stopped. If the bleeding persists, continue pinching the nose for another ten minutes. If available, use a cold compress to pinch the nostrils to constrict the blood vessels and stop the bleeding. Now when the bleeding stops, do not try to clean and dislodge the clots inside the nose. Instead, just gently wipe the external blood with a damp cloth.

When do you need to seek medical help?
Now when do you need to seek medical help? If the bleeding is severe and making the patient feel faint, if the bleeding does not stop in 20 to 30 minutes, then go to the emergency room of a hospital, where they may need to cauterize the bleeding point of the affected nostril. If the bleeding is frequent and recurrent, you definitely need to see an ENT specialist.
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